This literature review, originally created as part of a California arts participation study, explores how people participate in the arts, who participates, where participation happens, as well as motivations and barriers to participation.
Based on the 2012 U.S. General Social Survey, this report provides a detailed examination of the motivations of arts attendees (the 54% of Americans who attended at least one exhibition or performance during the previous year) and the barriers facing “interested non-attendees” (the 13% who did not attend a visual or performing arts event during the previous year but wanted to go to at least one exhibition or live performance).
This article highlights the financial situation of performing arts presenters between 2003-04 and 2011-12 based on aggregated data from 531 presenters receiving federal funding through the Canada Arts Presentation Fund. For the 531 presenters as a group, private sector revenues accounted for a larger proportion of revenues (40%) than earned revenues (36%) and public sector funding (24%) in 2011-12.
Based on financial and statistical data reported to CADAC (Canadian Arts Data / Données sur les arts au Canada), this report outlines the finances and activities of 75 artist-run centres “that receive recurring funding from the Visual Arts Section of the Canada Council for the Arts”. In 2013, the 75 artist-run centres had total operating revenues of about $18 million, 73% of which was received from government sources (including 42% from the Canada Council), 15% from private sector fundraising, and 11% from earned revenues.
This report examines the finances and activities of 77 public art galleries “that receive recurring funding from the Visual Arts Section of the Canada Council for the Arts”, based on their financial and statistical data submitted to CADAC (Canadian Arts Data / Données sur les arts au Canada). In 2013, the 77 galleries had total operating revenues of $245 million, 45% of which was received from government sources (all such sources, not just the Canada Council), 26% from earned revenues, 20% from private sector fundraising, and 9% from other revenue sources.
While not related to the arts, this report is an interesting example of research into new citizens’ participation in Canadian life, in the world of sports. The report is based on a survey of 4,157 new citizens residing in urban areas who have participated “in the Institute for Canadian Citizenship’s Cultural Access Pass program”, focus groups in eight Canadian cities, and a literature review of sports organizations’ focus on immigration and diversity.
This report provides “evidence-based insights into the health of U.S. arts and cultural organizations”, based on more than 55,000 arts and cultural organizations. The report is very detailed, with data related to 128 indices and in-depth reporting on 26 indices.
Based on a “nationally representative” online survey of just over 2,000 United Kingdom residents 16 or older, this report attempts to provide “detailed insights into the behaviour of arts and culture fans, their participation and attendance and how they consume content”. Overall, 89% of U.K. residents indicated that they have some interest in the arts, compared with 83% with some interest in sports. When asked whether they consider themselves an “arty person” or a “sporty person”, more U.K. residents chose arty (43%) than sporty (38%).
Based on a survey of 4,026 Americans 18 years of age or over, Culture Track 2014 examines cultural attendance as well as the attitudes, motivations, and behaviours of “culturally-active audiences” in an attempt to “understand what’s really driving or discouraging cultural participation”. Between a similar 2011 survey and the 2014 iteration, there was an increase in the percentage of Americans participating at least once a year in many art forms (including four types of museums, musical theatre, and classical music), but there were some decreases (including drama, classical dance, modern dance, and opera). The survey found that the frequency of participation has decreased over time, which the survey attributes to a lingering “effect of the economic downturn”. The report indicates that “cultural audiences are seeking both entertainment and enlightenment”.
This large-scale survey, completed by 8,124 Canadians 16 or older, aimed to develop “a better understanding of who dances in Canada, where they dance, and why”. The majority of survey respondents were identified as “leisure dance participants” (5,948, or 73%), with the remaining 2,176 respondents (or 27%) being dance professionals. Respondents identified 190 different dance forms in which they participate.