This Statistics Canada report examines the direct economic impact of the arts, culture, and heritage in Canada, using methodology that is comparable to other sectors of the economy. Statistics Canada estimates that the direct economic impact of cultural goods and services was $47.8 billion in 2010, or 3.1% of Canada's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 2010, there were 647,300 jobs directly related to cultural products, or 3.7% of total employment. The direct economic impact of culture ($47.8 billion) is about 10 times larger than the sports estimate ($4.5 billion).
The report notes that, other than a few differences, diverse Canadians attended at similar rates to other Canadians. Based on these findings, the report concludes that “the range of arts offerings in Canada – from art galleries, classical concerts, and theatre performances to pop concerts and cultural festivals – manages to attract most Canadians to at least one type of activity."
The National Endowment for the Arts' 2012 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts collected data about the arts activities of more than 37,000 Americans 18 years of age and older. The report provides key arts participation figures.
This report from Music Canada, a non-profit trade organization that promotes the interests of its members and their artist partners, provides strategies for supporting the growth of Canada’s commercial music industry, which the report calls “a highly creative and dynamic field that has undergone massive changes with the shift to digital technologies and platforms”.
Based on interviews with 14 technology professionals as well as a literature review of evidence related to music and skills development, this report (supported by Music Canada) contends that rich music environments help attract high-technology jobs to local areas. According to the study, music helps develop many skills that are critical for high-tech workers.
Based largely on a 2011 survey of 502 music company representatives and 1,094 artists in Canada’s independent music industry, this report attempts to “determine the breadth and scope of the Canadian-owned, independent music industry as a whole and to measure its importance to both national and provincial economies”. The survey results show that total revenues of independent music companies were $292 million in 2011. More than one-half of independent music companies (60%) have less than $50,000 in revenues, and almost one-half are sole proprietorships (46%).
This academic article examines how Montreal’s historical and cultural attributes influence the development of networks among musicians and other workers in the city’s independent music industry. The study is based on 46 interviews with musicians and industry workers not affiliated with major labels. The interviewees indicated that “knowing the right people” and having a wide range of contacts were “vital” to their career development.
With 40 citations from a range of sources, this brief bulletin provides a useful summary of research findings regarding the benefits of arts education. Indicating that arts education is key “to ensuring students’ success in school, work, and life”, the research bulletin concludes that “every young person in America deserves a complete and competitive education that includes the arts”. With evidence from 23 music education research projects, a similar fact sheet indicates that “music education equips students with the foundational abilities to learn, to achieve in other core academic subjects, and to develop the capacities, skills and knowledge essential for lifelong success”.
This study examines “whether music training is associated with higher-level reading abilities such as reading comprehension” in 46 “normal-achieving” children between six and nine years of age. The study finds that “length of music training predicted reading comprehension performance even after controlling for age, socioeconomic status, auditory perception, full scale IQ, the number of hours that children spent reading per week, and word decoding skills”. Unlike previous research, the study did not find a correlation between music training and word decoding skills.
Based on data from 50 members of Orchestras Canada, this report highlights changes in the situation of orchestras between 2004-05 and 2011-12, including revenues, expenses, surplus, performances, and attendance. While overall revenues and expenses increased (by 13% and 12% respectively), the report notes that “the overall revenue mix for the 50 orchestras did not change between 2004-05 and 2011-12." A more detailed analysis of revenue sources shows that “fundraising from individuals has become an increasingly important component of orchestra revenues (41% increase between 2004-05 and 2011-12)”.